Showing posts with label Engineering. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Engineering. Show all posts

How does a GPS Global Positioning System Framework ?

Worldwide Positioning System (GPS) is an overall radio-route framework shaped from the heavenly body of 24 satellites and their ground stations. The Global Positioning System is primarily supported and constrained by the U.S Department of Defense (DOD). The framework was at first intended for the activity of the U. S. military. However, today, there are likewise numerous common clients of GPS across the entire world. The common clients are permitted to utilize the Standard Positioning Service with no sort of charge or limitations.

Worldwide Positioning System following is a strategy for working out precisely where something is. A GPS global positioning framework, for instance, might be put in a vehicle, on a mobile phone, or on unique GPS gadgets, which can either be a fixed or convenient unit.GPS works by giving data on the definite areas. It can likewise follow the development of a vehicle or individual. In this way, for instance, a GPS global positioning framework can be utilized by an organization to screen the course and progress of a conveyance truck, and by guardians to mind the area of their youngster, or even to screen high-esteemed resources on the way.

GPS Tracking System global positioning framework utilizes the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) organization. This organization joins a scope of satellites that utilization microwave flags that are sent to GPS gadgets to give data on the spot, vehicle speed, time and bearing. In this way, a GPS global positioning framework can conceivably give both ongoing and noteworthy route information on any sort of excursion.

Constant following is likewise especially helpful from a security point of view as it permits vehicle proprietors to pinpoint the specific area of a vehicle at some random time. What's more, the GPS global positioning framework in the vehicle may then have the option to help police work out where the vehicle was taken to in the event that it was taken.

Cell Phone Tracking

The advancement of interchanges innovation has since a long time ago outperformed the sole capacity to get to others when they are versatile. Today, portable specialized gadgets are getting significantly more progressed and offer more than the capacity to simply carry on a discussion. Wireless GPS following is one of those advances.

All PDAs continually broadcast a radio sign, in any event, when not on a call. The wireless organizations have had the option to appraise the area of a cell for a long time utilizing triangulation data from the pinnacles accepting the sign. Nonetheless, the presentation of GPS innovation into cells has implied that mobile phone GPS following currently makes this data significantly more precise.

With GPS innovation now more ordinary in numerous new cell phones, this implies that the area of anybody conveying a GPS empowered cell phone can be precisely followed whenever. Wireless GPS following can in this manner be a valuable component for entrepreneurs, guardians, companions and colleagues hoping to interface with each other. GPS Tracking Apps (www.gpstrackingapps.com) gives a suite of Apps to the iPhone, iPad, Android, Blackberry and the most recent Samsung working framework bada which can all be utilized to follow each other on an area based person to person communication entry or from telephone to telephone.

The innovation of finding depends on estimating power levels and reception apparatus examples and utilizations the idea that a cell phone consistently discusses remotely with one of the nearest base stations, so in the event that you realize which base station the telephone speaks with, you realize that the telephone is near the individual base station.

Progressed frameworks decide the area wherein the cell phone lives and generally gauge likewise the distance to the base station. Further guess can be cultivated by interjecting signals between nearby radio wire towers. Qualified administrations may accomplish an accuracy of down to 50 meters in metropolitan territories where portable traffic and thickness of reception apparatus towers (base stations) is adequately high. Country and ruined territories may see miles between base stations and along these lines decide areas less correctly.

GSM limitation is the utilization of multilateration to decide the area of GSM cell phones, as a rule with the goal to find the client.

Limitation based Systems can be comprehensively isolated into:

•             Network based

•             Handset based

•             Hybrid

Network-Based

Organization based procedures use the specialist co-op's organization foundation to distinguish the area of the handset. The benefit of organization based strategies (from portable administrator's perspective) is that they can be executed non-rudely, without influencing the handsets.

The exactness of organization based procedures fluctuates, with cell ID as the most un-precise and triangulation as the most exact. The exactness of organization put together methods is intently reliant with respect to the convergence of base station cells, with metropolitan conditions accomplishing the most noteworthy conceivable precision.

Handset Based

Handset-based innovation requires the establishment of customer programming on the handset to decide its area for E-911 purposes. This strategy decides the area of the handset by registering its area by cell recognizable proof, signal qualities of the home, and adjoining cells, which is ceaselessly shipped off the transporter. Likewise, on the off chance that the handset is additionally furnished with GPS, at that point essentially more exact area data is then sent from the handset to the transporter.

 This innovation requires the establishment of customer programming on the cell phone, which goes about as its greatest downside since it's hard to introduce a product on a cell phone without the client's assent. All the more significantly, the product must be viable with different working frameworks. It requires the dynamic participation of the versatile supporter just as programming that should have the option to deal with the diverse working frameworks of the handsets. Normally, cell phones, for example, one dependent on Symbian, Windows Mobile, iPhone/iPhoneOS or Android would have the option to run such programming.

Hybrid

Mixture positioning frameworks utilize a blend of organization based and handset-based advancements for area assurance. One model would be Assisted GPS, which utilizes the two GPS and organization data to process the area. Crossbreed-based procedures give the best precision of the three however acquire the limits and difficulties of organization-based and handset-based advancements.

Instances of LBS (Location-Based Service) advances include:

Cell Identification – The exactness of this strategy can be on par with two or three hundred meters in metropolitan regions, however as poor as 35 km in rural zones and country zones. The precision relies upon the known scope of the specific organization base station serving the handset at the hour of situating.

Enhanced Cell Identification – With this strategy, one can get an exactness like Cell Identification, however for country zones, with round areas of 550 meters.

U-TDOA - Uplink-Time contrast of appearance – The organization decides the time distinction and along these lines the separation from each base station to the cell phone.

TOA - Time of appearance – This innovation utilizes the total season of landing in a the specific base station as opposed to the contrast between two stations.

AOA - Angle of Arrival – AOA system finds the cell phone at where the lines along the points from each base station meet.

E-OTD - Enhanced Observed Time Difference is like U-TDOA, however, the area is assessed utilizing estimations made by the cell phone, instead of by base station.

Assisted GPS- A generally GPS Vehicle Tracking System -based innovation, which utilizes an administrator kept up ground station to address for GPS blunders brought about by the environment/geography. Helped GPS situating innovation ordinarily falls back to cell-based situating strategies when inside or in a metropolitan gulch climate.

 Hybrid – As referenced above, half breed situating frameworks utilize various techniques relying upon which signs are locally accessible.

Land: Types, Area Measurement Units and How to Convert Acres to Sq. ft.

 

When it comes to either buying or owning land, two very important factors are its type and area. These aspects come up during purchase, lease, or any other sort of financial exchange and they play a role in determining the land’s value at the time of sale.

Area Measurement


 
In India, there are 6 main types of land, which are:

 

       Residential land

       Commercial land

       Agricultural land

       Farmland

       Real estate land

       Barren land

Each of these has their own value and guidelines. There are few similarities shared between these types and among the commonalities is the method by which area is calculated and stated. This is a standard that is generally followed across the country but given its diversity, there are a few local units of measurement to be aware of.

 

In the northern parts of the country, units such as Kattha, Kanal, Bigha, and Marla are to be expected, whereas in the south, you’ll find units such as Cent, Ground, and Guntha to be more common. Understanding these units and the differences between them can be difficult but not impossible.

 

Generally, however, global measurement units are used, and your task would be simply to learn how to convert from one to the other, for instance from acres to sq. ft. or hectares to acres. From a valuation standpoint, knowing all you can about the land area and its measurement is incredibly important. After all, this information is crucial to determining the true cost of the land. So, to give an overview and offer insight into the matter, consider these pointers.

How is land area measured?

Before you dive into learning how to convert acres into sq. ft or hectares to acres, you need to know the basics of land area measurement. Here, you start by multiplying the length and the width of the available land. This is the formula for the area of a rectangle.

Now, based on the unit used to measure the length and width, you can start converting your area to the required unit accordingly. For a table on the common land measurement units and their conversion factors, keep reading.

What are the common land area measurement units?

While different states in India will measure land by different units, there are standard units you can follow such as feet and metre. This helps everyone understand the figures accurately, and conversion between these standard units is easy too. Here is a list of some common land area measurement units and their conversions.

 

 

Unit

Conversion factor

1 Metre (m)

3.2 ft

1 Yard (yd)

3 ft, 0.9 m

1 Feet (ft)

12 inches, 30.48cm

1 Square feet (sq. ft.)

144 sq. inches, 0.092 sq. m

1 Square yard

9 sq. ft, 0.836 sq. m

1 Square metre (sq.m)

10.76 sq.ft

1 Acre

4,840 sq.yd, 4,046.86 sq.m

1 Hectare

10,000 sq.m, 2.49 acres


Refer to this table for easy conversions as it gives you the factor by which you need to multiply your figures by.

How do you convert acres to sq.ft?

To convert acres to sq.ft., all you need to do is multiply the area in acres by 43,560. For instance, 28 acres of land is 12,19,680 sq.ft. Acres are generally used to measure the area of agricultural land but converting to sq. ft. can come in handy during valuation.

How do you convert hectares to acres?

Similar to acres, hectares is another land area measurement unit used to measure agricultural land. To convert hectares to acres, all you need to do is multiply the area in hectares by 2.47. For instance, 35 hectares to acres is 86.49ac.

Calculating the area of land with global measurement units is a lot simpler and easier to follow. However, if you’re looking to own land in South India, expect the unit of measurement to be cent. For reference purposes, 1 cent equal 435.6 sq. ft. and you can use this to convert accordingly.

Alternatively, Northern India uses Bigha and here you may experience complications. This is simply because the understanding of Bigha varies with each state. For instance, in Gujarat, 1 Bigha is 17,427 sq. ft. whereas 1 Bigha in Punjab is 9,070 sq. ft. So, try your best to get area measurements in globally accepted units and carry out conversions like acres to sq. ft. and hectares to acres for greater simplicity.

 

Geotechnical Engineering | Soil mechanics - Basic Definition and Explanation

For a better understanding of the term like soil mechanics, Geotechnical engineering. first knows what is the meaning of word soil.

The soil word derived From the Latin word Solium (meaning- Upper Layer Of Earth That May Be Dug Or Plowed )(Specially Loose Surface Material Of Earth which plant Grow)

In Agronomy Above Definition Used For World Soil  Means Material Which Plant Grow.
In Geology Earth crust assume To Consist of Unconsolidated Sediment Called Mental And Upper layer we called soil

 Now In Geotech or Soil Engineering, we divide above definition in two-term top soil and Soil. topsoil should be removed Before construction because it contains organic matter.
Geotechnical Engineering

NOW Technical Definition of soil -

an unconsolidated Material (which contents Water present and in lose stage) Composed of Solid Particle  Produced By Disintegration of Rock. the void space between Particle May Contains air, water, or both. also may contain Organic matter

The soil Particle  can be separate by Such Mechanical means as Agitation (throw water reaction)

Soil Mechanics

We know soil consists of different solid particles which not solid strong Bonded as solid, and nor like Fluid-Particle.

So behavior is Intermediate Between them, from these hints we can say  Soil Structure come from this two material structure.

Now Definition Of soil Mechanics can be written -  It is application Of Law Of Mechanics And Hydraulics To engineering Problem Dealing with sediment and other unconsolidated accumulation  of solid particles Produced By Mechanical and Chemical Disintegration of rock

so soil mechanics is, therefore, a branch of mechanics which deal with the action of force on soil and with the flow of water in the soil

Definition of Soil Engineering -


Some Relation or principal manufacture in soil mechanics by Fluid or solid, fitting these relations in practical Problem of engineering and deal with these principals called soil engineering.  It is Broader then soil Mechanics.

 GeoTechnical Engineering 

Its broader of all Previous Term it contains which we read and contains knowledge about many Other things.

Soil engineering + Rock Mechanics + Geology = Geotechnical engineering

Define [SOIL FORMATION] With Process & Factors Involved

Before discussing the Formation of Soil we know, Soil is Defined as an unconsolidated Material (Water present and soil are loose ) Composed of Solid Particle.  Produced By Disintegration of Rock.

The void space between Particle May Contains air, water, or both. also may contain Organic matter. The soil Particle  can be separate by Such Mechanical means as  Agitation (basically change water property)
soil formation
soil formation

The Soil Formation

the soil is formed by weathering of rock due to disintegration or decomposition. due to these action rock convert into small particles and soil formed. mainly Two Process of soil formation are responsible for Formation of soil

Physical Disintegration Formation Process

In this Process of Formation of soil basically, the Property of soil is the same as Parent rock ex- Gravel, Sand, etc. Below we read Soil formation Factors Definition

Temperature action - rocks contain a different type of material. and this material has different thermal expansion when the temperature changes some material expand and some not also when temp. drop some contraction happen in some material. these contraction and expansion are produced stress in rock and when this stress reaches limiting value rock divide in parts. these parts again convert into small parts by temp. action and at the end formation of soil occur.


Wedging action of ice - we know rock contains cracks and crack contain water. due to the variable region when temp. drop below freezing point water convert into ice and we know ice occupy large volume than water. Due to these phenomena, high pressure develop into rock and rock broken into pieces



Spreading of the root of plants - when a plant grows its roots also grow and sometimes go to the rock crack and produced high force into the rock. due to this rock broken into small pieces.

Abrasion - when the water and other natural element moves over rock this give friction effect in rock surface and these friction cases removal of the top layer of rock and so Formation of soil Occur.

Chemical Process of Disintegration Formation

As compared to the physical State of Formation of soil. in chemical decomposition original rock mineral is transformed into a new type of material which has different property then original rock. Clay is the example of soil which Comes from Chemical Process of soil formation


Hydration - in this case when water mix with rock minerals a new chemical compound comes. This Chemical reaction gives volume change effects in rock. and rock decomposed into small particles


Carbonation - when carbon dioxide present in atmospheric comes with water. its form carbonic acid. it's reaction with rock case decomposition of the rock.


Oxidation - oxidation is like rusting of steel. when oxygen ions combined with minerals in rock its produced reaction and the decomposition of the rock Done.


solution - when some rock minerals dissolved with water and its make a solution with water. its produced reaction and decomposition take place


Capillary Potential and Capillary Siphoning in Dam Definition

Before you learn Capillary Potential,  we highly recommended seeing lesson 1st and 2nd and 3rd for the better understanding

Capillary Potential -

the tendency which the soil hold the capillary water is measured in term of the capillary potential.
it defined as work done to take water from the mass of soil.
dear friends, we know the Capillary force is negative so we can relate it with capillary potential and say its always negative and max value is zero.
From the Capillary water tension we now when water content decreases the tension increase. from these we say
when water content minimum the capillary potential is minimum.

Capillary Siphoning Definition


Capillary siphoning happen when the water flows upward due to capillary action. From this upward flow result, the capillary water flows over the core from the storage reservoir to the downstream side.

capillary siphoning is prevented by increasing the height of the impervious core above the capillary range.

How [Surface Tension] and [Capillary Action] Work in Water / Soil With relation

Before starting lessons 3 of Capillary Water Tension it's highly recommended to read lesson 1st and 2nd by click below link, it gives a good idea about the topic. 

Capillary action due to Tension 

Dear Friends, Basic Phenomena of the earth is When Pressure applied, in Direction of Gravity Force called positive pressure. Now understanding the term capillary water tension.

the previous lesson, we see a Capillary tube in which water on the inside is hanging to Surface of the tube.

Let's show a capillary tube Fig.
Capillary Action

The pressure of point a is atmospheric pressure because of a free surface.

Now pressure (p) of top point T is (p = ρ g h) now because it acting upward its again the general earth law of pressure so it's written as p = -(ρ g h)

So here we can say in Tube water is tried to remain sticky on the wall and gravity tried to pull downward.

from the above statement, we can say a tension force produced between them, and these tension in a capillary tube is known as capillary water tension.

Friends the same Phenomena is work in the soil,

soil mass also contains small dia interstice which behaves like a capillary tube of small dia.

so the water rises in the soil above the water level.
From all the above visualization and from the previous lesson, we can say

* Because the capillary pressure act upward (also say negative) it increases the effective stress-bearing capacity of the soil.

Capillary action give Tension During Drying and wetting

Dear Friend above we learn capillary tension in the tube or soil above the water table. in this article, we consider the soil mass capillary zone is at the ground surface.

fig show soil mass particle which Saturated throw top means of capillary water
Capillary action and Surface Tension

in the first type, fig soil is saturated by capillary action throw top.

now when the temperature increase water evaporates and soil particle look like fig-2

further increase in temperature increase soil dry amount and this case give interstices water reduction, and water tries to collapsing the soil particles and particle tries to remain in the same place.

so a capillary tension is introduced due to this drying. but further drying case Zero tension and soil particles behave like dry sand mass.

now if we wetting these soil a reverse cycle of above is continues. and you visualize what happened.

so its all about Capillary Tension During Drying wetting.

Soil Suction and Water Content relation

you can also learn an extra things soil suction and drying wetting relationship. I thig it's very easy to understand what goes on the graph by reading the previous lesson and today topic.
Surface Tension and capillary action relation

How [Capillary Action] Work in Water & Soil with Tube experiment

Before starting the lesson we highly recommended to see the previous lesson no 1  on 👉Capillary water and surface tension. For a better understanding of Capillary rise in the soil, it's very important to first see the Capillary rise in small diameter tube which gives a high-level understanding of the topic.

Capillary Rise in the tube.

In fig show a capillary tube of small dia, in the tube water rise throw some height,
Capillary rise action
Basically, water rise in small diameter tube because of adhesion and cohesion

Adhesion- its Because of water stick to the solid wall of a tube

Cohesion - It is an attraction of water molecules.

If adhesion effect more than cohesion the water molecule push each other and liquid rise.

in case of cohesion effect more than adhesion liquid fall, example- the case of mercury.

Capillary rise action in soil

the reason for the capillary rise in the soil is an air-water interface.
capillary action in soil
As soon soil submerging to water the air-water interface destroyed and at the end when soil fully immerses capillary water become normal water.

we discuss a capillary rise in small dia tube previously now we know soil also contains interstices which behaves like small dia pipe.

dear friends We also know at large dia pipe capillary rise is very small because of the adhesion-cohesion intensity not sufficient or very low.

From these theories, we can say that capillary rise is small in coarse grains soil. because space is large.
and in fine grain soil, space is very litter so capillary rise occurs. also sometimes a very high capillary rise occurs in fine grain soil.

this height to which capillary water rise know as a capillary fringe.

the soil above the capillary fringe contains water in the form of contact moisture.

Factor affecting capillary action

From all the above discussion my friends you easily say what the factor which affects the capillary rise.  Ex- Size of soil particles, the water content in the soil, type of soil, etc.

What is [Shrinkage] and [Swelling]

Shrinkage

Term shrinkage and swelling are basically for the clay soil. in the previous lesson of capillary water, we introduced a word capillary tension, you relate this tension to shrinkage for better understanding.

the main reason for shrinkage is this tension. see the diagram of the shrinkage process.

let see the fig (a) in which soil mass saturated to full level a-a, due to capillary water or any other reason,
Shrinkage and swelling process
assumed temperature increase and some water evaporation take place, due to this evaporation water go to (b-b)

due to this little, small amount of tension come in soil particle, because

we already discuss in capillary water tension,

water stick to the surface of the soil particle, when water level reduced tension produced in water. or obviously compression on the soli particle,

basically, water compresses the soil particle due to tension produced in it. try to visualize for clean understanding.

if further water evaporates the more compression of soil particle come. which give greate shrinkage to soil mass.

but if again water loss case destroyed water tension because no sufficient amount of water present so no more compression produced in between particle, we achieve max shrinkage in the previous case.

that's all about shrinkage

Swelling

swelling of soil depends upon the number of factor like increase water content, adsorbed layer, entrapped air, clay minerals, but we consider only increase the water content.

we know shrinkage phenomena if we reverse the shrinkage cycle from max shrinkage stage to no shrinkage by adding water,

expansion of soil particle come and some swelling introduced.

Shrinkage and Swelling Effect

1. The structure faces stress which resting on soil, which has shrinkage and swelling property.

2. swelling case lifting of light structure, which is not good for any structure.

3. Shrinkage and swell soil create the problem on roads maintains.

What is [Tensiometer], Suction Plate, [Centrifugal] method of Soil Suction

Before starting soil suction test lets know what is soil suction, we also highly recommended to see the previous lesson of capillary water for better understanding, let's start

Soil Suction -

in soil suction, word suction means stretching something. and we know due to capillary water, soil comes in tension.

And pressure due to capillary water rise is negative. also, it reduced to below atmospheric pressure, now from the previous statement we can say

the soil is in a state of reduced pressure is known as soil suction.

Soil Suction Test -

for measurement of soil suction amount, soil suction test is conducting, in this article we defined varies type of test. which used under different condition. let's start

Suction Plate Method - 

Suction Plate


this soil suction test, A extra attachment of vacuum pump is provided (see fig) as compared to the previous method.

soil sample which suction is tested is placed over the porous plate.

below porous plate water is filled. so soil starts suction of water but pipe connected to vacuum pump applies a vacuum force by which reading is set.

mercury level pipe also connected mid between vacuum pump and soil sample,

so a reduction in pressure is measured because soil tries to suck water and vacuum try to maintain water level. when the soil starts suction vacuum force reduced. and its measure by mercury level.

Centrifugal method -

Centrifugal



a box type instrument with brass case (as shown in fig) connect to the rotating device by a shaft,

the center part contains the porous pot. and side of porous pot maintains a gap between the inside casing of brass.

firstly a soil sample is placed on a porous pot, then throw the rotating shaft rotation is applied which give the centrifugal action of rotation,

the water from the soil comes out and drained throw the porous pot and then comes on outside of the porous pot and finely after maintaining a level inside brace casing its travel throw hole.

analysis the amount of water finally collect we can find the soil suction.

Tensiometer method -


Tensiometer

this type of suction test, a U shape container (as shown in fig) contain a porous pot used for the test,

soil which suction is tested is filled in the container. then a pipe contains water connecting to the porous pot.

pipe contains water and at the end, it maintains a mercury level.

when the pipe valve is open soil star suction of water and mercury level drop by some hight.

finally, a stage comes where no more reduction in mercury level comes and it attains an equilibrium stage.

finally, from the change in mercury height, we can find the soil suction.

Factor affects soil suction -

this section, give only some idea about factor affecting soil suction you try to visualize what is actually happen.

1. Particle size - smaller particle size greater soil suction because fine particle soil has a large number of pores which give large capillary rise which related to soil suction

2. Temperature -  soil suction decrease as the temperature increase.

3.Water content - water content decrease soil suction increase and attain maximum value in full dry case of soil.

4. Densenceness - Dense soil give large suction and lose soil give low suction.

5. The angle of contact - when the angle of contact is zero soil suction maximum.

this all about Soil Suction Test | Soil suction Definition | Factor affecting Suction don't  hesitate to give feedback,

my friends its help us 😊

[Bulk Density] and [Porosity] Relation

Relationship between bulk density and porosity


last time we discuss three-phase diagram of volumetric relation (void ratio, porosity, etc), now there are many interrelations between them which is really important in whole soil engineering, today we see relationship Between Bulk density,  porosity, and Degree of saturation. Which is one of them,

To star We draw a three-phase diagram in term of Porosity

this diagram satisfied void ratio and porosity relation.
Geotechnical Engineering
Finding the density in the form of specific gravity. firstly find the degree of saturation in the form of porosity
Geotechnical Engineering
next time when we put Sn in place of nw it gives the shape to our equation. 
Bulk density, porosity and Degree of saturation relationship
finally, we find the density of solid in the form of specific gravity 
three phase diagram in term of Porosity.
Finally, the last step is just taking common value ρw outside of the equation and we get 

ρ = [G(1-n) + sn] ρw

this is the relationship of Bulk density, porosity, and Degree of saturation, 
The all above Process also called three-phase diagram in term of Porosity.

Also, you can check the relationship between void-ratio, specific gravity, and degree of saturation
for complete understanding, for see our three-phase diagram chapter its cover almost all problem.

Define [Particle Size Distribution] With the Help of Curve

Particle size distribution

Particle size distribution is Representation of sieving result, it helps to easy understanding the various particle size minority and the majority. For proper Understanding of particle size distribution, it is important to visualize the sieving process, 

Now we know, When the Sieving is done, Different type of particles settled in their respective sieve according to their size, After that Computation of percentage finer is done,

Which help to find Percentage Finer (N),  this Percentage Finer give the exact Percentage of material Retains according to sieve type,

again we can say, Particle size distribution is Representation of these result, it helps to easy understanding the various particle size minority and the majority.

Because the course grain soil property depends on particle size, particle size distribution is very useful for coarse-grained soil.

for better of particle size distribution it is important to discuss Percentage finer (N)

Percentage finer (N)


sieve of soil

Let suppose soil is sieving. and mass of sample retained in the sieve set. giving name M1, M2....... now

percentage retains (P) could be found by dividing mass M1(mass of retaining soil in sieve 1) to total mass M,

finding percentage retain (P) for all sieve by same formula = M1 / M after that

Now cumulative Percentage (C) find =C1, C2, C3.....










for 1st number sieve {C1=P1} for second number sieve {C2 = P1+P2} also same procedure for next sieve.

lets finally find Percentage Finer (N) = For sieve number 1 (N1 = 100 - C1) for second number (N2 = 100 - C2) and the same procedure for remaining.


Particle size distribution Curve

Particle size distribution curve
Particle size distribution Curve is Basically graphical representation from the Data, which is collected from sieving result also from percentage finer,

we know permeability of soil depending upon the size of the particle so a guess of permeability can be found from the particle size distribution curve.

Grading of soil can be Determine with the help of Particle size distribution curve if the curve value finishes within a lower range size particle the soil called Fine graded.

If the curve starts after some skipping small particle size and between the large size particle the soil called coarse graded.

also according to curve shape we find the soil is well graded, gap graded, or uninformed graded.

[Sieve Analysis] / [Sieving Process] with Defination

What is Sieving

Sieving is Process of Separation of soil, on the bases of particle size. Its come under the Mechanical analysis which is index property of coarse grain soil.  The process is done manually or by machine, we suggest see Table below for better understanding the term sieving.
soil property
Soil property

Process of sieving

From the above chart, we know sieving is done for Coarse-grained soil. in the process, the soil is sieved throw set of sieved, stacked one over the other, from top to bottom in decreasing size. the Receiver at the bottom knows pan, which is without opening. sieve generally made of spun brass and phosphor bronze.
The sieving process for coarse-grained soil further divide into = Dry and wet sieving

Before discussing dry or wet term firstly let's check sieve type = Gravel Fraction and sand Fraction
sieving size chart



sieve size chart

Sieve analysis

sieve analysis is the process in which different size sieve is placed on each other So that we can divide the various particles of that Soil according to its size, and prepare a table and graph of soil particle arrangement and which is used to find different properties of soil which are used in a various soil test.

sieve analysis mainly consists of two types of dry sieve analysis and wet sieve analysis, which is following

Sieve analysis of coarse and Fine aggregate

Dry sieve analysis - 
This type of sieve analysis soil should be oven dry, not containing lump, also not containing any organic material.

firstly the sample of soil collected from the material which is used in the construction or maybe purpose of practical. the weight of the sample should be checked, then the sample is sieving throw the gravel fraction sieve, then the amount of material retained in 4.75 mm is gravel fraction and passing material throw 4.75mm is used for the sand fraction.

also, the sand fraction is done and all data is collected from both sieves. now time for the analysis the data how much quantity of material retained in each category of sieve by Computation of percentage finer.

now finally Particle size distribution curve Plotted, From the help of this curve we can find the soil is well graded, uniformly graded, fine graded, gap graded, coarse graded.
wet sieve analysis

some time soil contains more than 5% fine particles, which is stick to each other so before the sieving. the sample is washed properly from water then air or oven dry is done. the remaining process is the same as Dry sieve analysis.

We Know sieving is done manually or with the help of a machine. in the sieving machine case, a vibrating base is attached to the sieve set. this vibrating base shack the sieve set and soil sample retain in sieve set according to their size. data is collected according to discuss above, and the final curve is plotted from the test data.


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Relationship Between [Void Ratio], Specific Gravity / [Degree of Saturation]

In three phase diagrame, we see volumetric relations and volume mass relation, further, thair is Relationship between void ratio specific gravity and degree of saturation.which important in solving the numerical problem and for a better understanding of the chapter. 

Fig Show a three phase diagram, the left side of which shows Volume and right side show mass respectively for air-water solid.
relationship between void ratio specific gravity and degree of saturation


We know Density ρ = mass / Volume  also this can be written as  mass = Density x Volume
relationship between void ratio specific gravity and degree of saturation
from above we say the mass of water = Density of water x Volume of water = ρw x Vw

Now Mass of solid = density of solid x Volume of Solid, But We don't know the density of solid

but we know Specific Gravity (G) = Density of solid ρs / Density of Water ρw, from this we can say

Density of solid is ρs = G x ρw
Put these density value in Mass formula M= ρv
our diagram now look like this (second three phase diagram)

Also, we know water content =

Degree of saturation S = volume of water Vw  / volume of voids Vv



also the volume of water Vw = S x Vv

Put all value on star mark equation we get
relation of Void Ratio, Specific Gravity and Degree of Saturation
Now We Know (Vv / Vs) = e        SO our equation will look like

Void Ratio Specific Gravity and Degree of Saturation relation
That's our final Relationship between void ratio specific gravity and degree of saturation

[SOIL PERMEABILITY] Definition / Test to Find Permeability

we discuss whereas types of water in soil on lesson capillary water, one of them is free water ( the water which flows from one point to other by the influence of gravity ). this free water gives permeability to the soil.
permeability of soil
we also know soil mass contain pores or holes. if these porous are interconnected its called interstices, free water flow throw it from one place to other places on soil mass. 

Permeability of soil 

From the above discussion, we can say the property of soil which permits flow of water on it Called permeability.

permeability of soil in fine and coarse grain
However the velocity of water or say permeability may depend upon how much width of these interstices, for example, coarse grain soil give high permeability effect as compare to fine grain soil, because the particle gap is large in case of coarse grain as compared to fine grain.
generally, all type of soil is permeable, if the soil is a very low permeability its called impervious soil. permeability is very important engineering property. it helps in design filter, prevent hydraulic structure piping and seepage.

constant head permeability test 


For determining the coefficient of permeability of soil mass which is relatively sufficient amount of permeability, constant head permeability test is used, it is a laboratory method for determining permeability.

permeability test


Procedure -


Take the mold and measure the dia, length, weight, volume properly for future calculation.

Take 2.5 Kg of a soil sample, mix it properly and convert it into a wet soil sample, then placed into in metallic mold, and level it properly.

calculate mold mass with the soil sample.

separate some amount of sample from our prepared sample for later water content determination.

Place porous disc at top and bottom of the sample and fix it properly.

from the base of the sample connect a pipe which collects the drain water to a reservoir.

Close the upward and downward valve, and apply vacuum so remaining air drains

allow water to fill mold from the top.

Connect a constant head reservoir to the inlet sample pipe.

star stopwatch
allows water to flow through the soil till the steady stage is attained.

take stopwatch reading and measure the time is taken or water is out in what time interval.

from how much supply of water and what time taken at the end in collecting jar we can find permeability.

repeat the test at least three times and collect mean value it gives an accurate result.

[SOIL STABILIZATION] Definition | Types


When soil Available at a construction site is not Suitable For our construction Due is its low-level Property, then its required to improved engineering property (like Permeability, Shear strength ) and make our soil ready for construction, all these processes of improving soil is called Soil stabilization. the stabilization of any soil includes the term compaction, drainage, and Preconsolidation mean these cover in the stabilization process.

With the help of the soil stabilization process, we quickly make good workability condition on any type of soil. specially trafficable area and in case of emergency military movement.

Soil Stabilization

Method of Soil Stabilization

There are lots of soil stabilization technique used in modern days which are following


  1. Soil stabilization with cement
  2. Mechanical Stabilization of Soil
  3. Bituminous  Stabilization
  4. Soil stabilization using lime
  5. Chemical Stabilization of Soil
  6. Fabric and Geotextile Stabilization of Soil
  7. Thermal Stabilization of Soil
  8. Reinforced Stabilization of Soil
  9. Grouting Stabilization of Soil
  10. Electrical Stabilization


lime Soil stabilization

When lime is added to the soil its case decrease in the plasticity of the soil because of reaction with adsorbed water.lime is generally used for the improvement of Subgrade
Generally Hydrate lime used the amount of lime mix with soil is between 2 - 10 % but in a case when lime only used for improved soil chemical characteristic 1 - 3% is sufficient.
Some soil like the sandy soil is not influenced by lime effect, this type of soil is combined with clay and fly ash before mixing with Lime to obtain proper property of soil.


Chemical Soil stabilization 

There are Many chemicals which added to soil for the purpose of soil stabilization
Calcium Chloride -
It gives reaction effect to the soil mater and reduced Loss of Moisture. Due to calcium chloride soil to absorbed water easily so this special importance to the soil like Silty and clay which reduced strength due to increase in water.
Calcium Chloride also reduced frost Heave or freezing point of soil.

Sodium Chloride - 
This is added to the soil by proper mixing and when mix to soil it forms a dense hard soil mass, the general added percentage is 1% of soil.

Sodium silicate -
this is injected to soil mass which makes soil impervious and increases the strength of the soil. but the strength and the impervious property reduced when soil mass come in contact with air and water.

Mechanical stabilization of soil


Basically, a Desire Grading of soil is obtained by proper balancing the quantity of coarse grain and fine grain soil. in term of mechanical stabilization coarse graded soil is aggregate and fine graded soil is the binder.
when we mix these two ( aggregate give resistance to compression and strength and binder give stability to aggregate to its place) a stable soil surface is archive which has a high bearing capacity as compare to without stabilization.

cement Soil stabilization


the soil which needs strength increase is mix with cement ( generally Portland cement ) and water mix, which give a strong strength to the soil. also according to what water-cement ratio added to soil, there is three division.
5 - 14 % of cement with normal Quantity of water called Normal soil cement
5 - 14 % of cement with a large quantity of water as compared the above to make Plastering mortar called Plastic soil cement
< 5% of cement with a normal quantity of water to make semi-hardening material this type called Cement modified soil

Electrical Stabilization - 

This is generally for Clay Soil. in this type of stabilization process electric current pass throw soil mass which gives pore water charge migration . and strength of soil increase due to water removal.


Advantages and Disadvantages of soil stabilization.

the main advantages of soil stabilization are it improves soil property quickly which is very helpful for some operation like quick road maintenance and new road construction for military and emergency period 

Due to soil stabilization the area which is not developed due to soil disadvantages also chance of development.

Soil stabilization avoids the migration of road path due to soil stability.

The setting time and curing time is controlled due to soil stablization

Disadvantages of soil stabilization.


The main disadvantages of soil stabilization are the economy. because lots of money required to improve the soil by stablization and also skill labour is necessory for the operation.

Most of the Soil stabilization does not improve soil Property for a long time. after some time losses have come.