Showing posts with the label Engineering

How does a GPS Global Positioning System Framework ?

Worldwide Positioning System (GPS) is an overall radio-route framework shaped from the heavenly body of 24 satellites and their ground stations. The Global Positioning System is primarily supported and constrained by the U.S Department of Defense (DOD). The framework was at first intended for the activity of the U. S. military. However, today, there are likewise numerous common clients of GPS across the entire world. The common clients are permitted to utilize the Standard Positioning Service with no sort of charge or limitations. Worldwide Positioning System following is a strategy for working out precisely where something is. A GPS global positioning framework, for instance, might be put in a vehicle, on a mobile phone, or on unique GPS gadgets, which can either be a fixed or convenient unit.GPS works by giving data on the definite areas. It can likewise follow the development of a vehicle or individual. In this way, for instance, a GPS global positioning framework can be utilized

Land: Types, Area Measurement Units and How to Convert Acres to Sq. ft.

Image
  When it comes to either buying or owning land, two very important factors are its type and area. These aspects come up during purchase, lease, or any other sort of financial exchange and they play a role in determining the land’s value at the time of sale.   In India, there are 6 main types of land, which are:   ●        Residential land ●        Commercial land ●        Agricultural land ●        Farmland ●        Real estate land ●        Barren land Each of these has their own value and guidelines. There are few similarities shared between these types and among the commonalities is the method by which area is calculated and stated. This is a standard that is generally followed across the country but given its diversity, there are a few local units of measurement to be aware of.   In the northern parts of the country, units such as Kattha, Kanal, Bigha, and Marla are to be expected, whereas in the south, you’ll find units such as Cent, Ground, and Guntha to be more common. Unders

Geotechnical Engineering | Soil mechanics - Basic Definition and Explanation

Image
For a better understanding of the term like soil mechanics, Geotechnical engineering. first knows what is the meaning of word soil. The soil word derived From the Latin word Solium (meaning- Upper Layer Of Earth That May Be Dug Or Plowed )(Specially Loose Surface Material Of Earth which plant Grow) In Agronomy Above Definition Used For World Soil  Means Material Which Plant Grow. In Geology Earth crust assume To Consist of Unconsolidated Sediment Called Mental And Upper layer we called soil  Now In Geotech or Soil Engineering, we divide above definition in two-term top soil and Soil. topsoil should be removed Before construction because it contains organic matter. NOW  Technical Definition of soil  - an unconsolidated Material (which contents Water present and in lose stage) Composed of Solid Particle  Produced By Disintegration of Rock. the void space between Particle May Contains air, water, or both. also may contain Organic matter The soil Particle  can be separate by Such Mechanica

Define [SOIL FORMATION] With Process & Factors Involved

Image
Before discussing the Formation of Soil we know, Soil is Defined as an unconsolidated Material (Water present and soil are loose ) Composed of Solid Particle.  Produced By Disintegration of Rock. The void space between Particle May Contains air, water, or both. also may contain Organic matter. The soil Particle  can be separate by Such Mechanical means as   Agitation (basically change water property) soil formation The Soil Formation the soil is formed by weathering of rock due to disintegration or decomposition. due to these action rock convert into small particles and soil formed. mainly Two Process of soil formation are responsible for Formation of soil Physical Disintegration Formation Process In this Process of Formation of soil basically, the Property of soil is the same as Parent rock ex- Gravel, Sand, etc. Below we read Soil formation Factors Definition Temperature action - rocks contain a different type of material. and this material has different thermal expansion when th

Capillary Potential and Capillary Siphoning in Dam Definition

Image
Before you learn Capillary Potential,  we highly recommended seeing lesson 1st and 2nd and 3rd for the better understanding Capillary Water Movement in Soil Shrinkage and Swelling of Soil Capillary Water in Soil Relation of Surface Tension and Capillary Action Work in Soil Water Capillary Potential - the tendency which the soil hold the capillary water is measured in term of the capillary potential. it defined as work done to take water from the mass of soil. dear friends, we know the Capillary force is negative so we can relate it with capillary potential and say its always negative and max value is zero. From the Capillary water tension we now when water content decreases the tension increase. from these we say when water content minimum the capillary potential is minimum. Capillary Siphoning Definition Capillary siphoning happen when the water flows upward due to capillary action. From this upward flow result, the capillary water flows over the core from the storage reservoir to the

How [Surface Tension] and [Capillary Action] Work in Water / Soil With relation

Image
Before starting lessons 3 of  Capillary Water Tension it's highly recommended to read lesson 1st and 2nd by click below link, it gives a good idea about the topic.  Capillary Water Movement in Soil Shrinkage and Swelling of Soil Capillary Water in Soil Relation of Surface Tension and Capillary Action Work in Soil Water Capillary Potential and Capillary Siphoning in Dam Capillary action due to Tension  Dear Friends, Basic Phenomena of the earth is When Pressure applied, in Direction of Gravity Force called positive pressure. Now understanding the term capillary water tension. the previous lesson, we see a Capillary tube in which water on the inside is hanging to Surface of the tube. Let's show a capillary tube Fig. The pressure of point a is atmospheric pressure because of a free surface. Now pressure (p) of top point T is (p = ρ g h) now because it acting upward its again the general earth law of pressure so it's written as p = -(ρ g h) So here we can say in Tube water is t

How [Capillary Action] Work in Water & Soil with Tube experiment

Image
Before starting the lesson we highly recommended to see the previous lesson no 1  on 👉 Capillary water and surface tension .  For a better understanding of Capillary rise in the soil, it's very important to first see the Capillary rise in small diameter tube which gives a high-level understanding of the topic. Capillary Rise in the tube. In fig show a capillary tube of small dia, in the tube water rise throw some height, Basically, water rise in small diameter tube because of adhesion and cohesion Adhesion- its Because of water stick to the solid wall of a tube Cohesion - It is an attraction of water molecules. If adhesion effect more than cohesion the water molecule push each other and liquid rise. in case of cohesion effect more than adhesion liquid fall, example- the case of mercury. Capillary rise action in soil the reason for the capillary rise in the soil is an air-water interface. As soon soil submerging to water the air-water interface destroyed and at the end when soil

What is [Shrinkage] and [Swelling]

Image
Shrinkage Term shrinkage and swelling are basically for the clay soil. in the previous lesson of capillary water, we introduced a word capillary tension, you relate this tension to shrinkage for better understanding. the main reason for shrinkage is this tension. see the diagram of the shrinkage process. let see the fig (a) in which soil mass saturated to full level a-a, due to capillary water or any other reason, assumed temperature increase and some water evaporation take place, due to this evaporation water go to (b-b) due to this little, small amount of tension come in soil particle, because we already discuss in capillary water tension, water stick to the surface of the soil particle, when water level reduced tension produced in water. or obviously compression on the soli particle, basically, water compresses the soil particle due to tension produced in it. try to visualize for clean understanding. if further water evaporates the more compression of soil particle come. which give

What is [Tensiometer], Suction Plate, [Centrifugal] method of Soil Suction

Image
Before starting soil suction test lets know what is soil suction, we also highly recommended to see the previous lesson of capillary water for better understanding, let's start Soil Suction - in soil suction, word suction means stretching something. and we know due to capillary water, soil comes in tension. And pressure due to capillary water rise is negative. also, it reduced to below atmospheric pressure, now from the previous statement we can say the soil is in a state of reduced pressure is known as soil suction. Soil Suction Test - for measurement of soil suction amount, soil suction test is conducting, in this article we defined varies type of test. which used under different condition. let's start Suction Plate Method -  this soil suction test, A extra attachment of vacuum pump is provided (see fig) as compared to the previous method. soil sample which suction is tested is placed over the porous plate. below porous plate water is filled. so soil starts suction of water b

[Bulk Density] and [Porosity] Relation

Image
Relationship between bulk density and porosity last time we discuss three-phase diagram of volumetric relation (void ratio, porosity, etc), now there are many interrelations between them which is really important in whole soil engineering, today we see relationship Between Bulk density,  porosity, and Degree of saturation. Which is one of them, To star We draw a three-phase diagram in term of Porosity this diagram satisfied void ratio and porosity relation. Finding the density in the form of specific gravity. firstly find the degree of saturation in the form of porosity next time when we put Sn in place of nw it gives the shape to our equation.  finally, we find the density of solid in the form of specific gravity  Finally, the last step is just taking common value ρw outside of the equation and we get  ρ = [G(1-n) + sn] ρw this is the  relationship  of  Bulk density, porosity, and Degree of saturation,  The all above Process also called three-phase diagram in term of Porosity . Also,

Define [Particle Size Distribution] With the Help of Curve

Image
Particle size distribution Particle size distribution is Representation of sieving result, it helps to easy understanding the various particle size minority and the majority. For proper Understanding of particle size distribution, it is important to visualize the sieving process,  Now we know, When the Sieving is done, Different type of particles settled in their respective sieve according to their size, After that Computation of percentage finer is done, Which help to find Percentage Finer (N),  this Percentage Finer give the exact Percentage of material Retains according to sieve type, again we can say, Particle size distribution is Representation of these result, it helps to easy understanding the various particle size minority and the majority. Because the course grain soil property depends on particle size, particle size distribution is very useful for coarse-grained soil. for better of particle size distribution it is important to discuss Percentage finer (N) Percentage finer (N)

[Sieve Analysis] / [Sieving Process] with Defination

Image
What is Sieving Sieving is Process of Separation of soil, on the bases of particle size. Its come under the Mechanical analysis which is index property of coarse grain soil.  The process is done manually or by machine, we suggest see Table below for better understanding the term sieving. Soil property Process of sieving From the above chart, we know sieving is done for Coarse-grained soil. in the process, the soil is sieved throw set of sieved, stacked one over the other, from top to bottom in decreasing size. the Receiver at the bottom knows pan, which is without opening. sieve generally made of spun brass and phosphor bronze. The sieving process for coarse-grained soil further divide into = Dry and wet sieving Before discussing dry or wet term firstly let's check sieve type = Gravel Fraction and sand Fraction Sieve analysis sieve analysis is the process in which different size sieve is placed on each other So that we can divide the various particles of that Soil according to its

Relationship Between [Void Ratio], Specific Gravity / [Degree of Saturation]

Image
In three phase diagrame, we see volumetric relations and volume mass relation, further, thair is Relationship between void ratio specific gravity and degree of saturation.which important in solving the numerical problem and for a better understanding of the chapter.  Fig Show a three phase diagram, the left side of which shows Volume and right side show mass respectively for air-water solid. We know Density ρ = mass / Volume  also this can be written as  mass = Density x Volume from above we say the mass of water = Density of water x Volume of water = ρw x Vw Now Mass of solid = density of solid x Volume of Solid , But We don't know the density of solid but we know Specific Gravity (G) = Density of solid ρs / Density of Water ρw , from this we can say Density of solid is ρs = G x ρw Put these density value in Mass formula M= ρv our diagram now look like this (second three phase diagram) Also, we know water content = Degree of saturation S = volume of water Vw  / volume of voids

[SOIL PERMEABILITY] Definition / Test to Find Permeability

Image
we discuss whereas types of water in soil on lesson capillary water , one of them is free water ( the water which flows from one point to other by the influence of gravity ). this free water gives permeability to the soil. we also know soil mass contain pores or holes. if these porous are interconnected its called interstices, free water flow throw it from one place to other places on soil mass.  Permeability of soil  From the above discussion, we can say the property of soil which permits flow of water on it Called permeability. However the velocity of water or say permeability may depend upon how much width of these interstices, for example, coarse grain soil give high permeability effect as compare to fine grain soil, because the particle gap is large in case of coarse grain as compared to fine grain. generally, all type of soil is permeable, if the soil is a very low permeability its called impervious soil. permeability is very important engineering property. it helps in design f

[SOIL STABILIZATION] Definition | Types

Image
When soil Available at a construction site is not Suitable For our construction Due is its low-level Property, then its required to improved engineering property (like Permeability, Shear strength ) and make our soil ready for construction, all these processes of improving soil is called Soil stabilization. the stabilization of any soil includes the term compaction, drainage, and Preconsolidation mean these cover in the stabilization process. With the help of the soil stabilization process, we quickly make good workability condition on any type of soil. specially trafficable area and in case of emergency military movement. Method of Soil Stabilization There are lots of soil stabilization technique used in modern days which are following Soil stabilization with cement Mechanical Stabilization of Soil Bituminous  Stabilization Soil stabilization using lime Chemical Stabilization of Soil Fabric and Geotextile Stabilization of Soil Thermal Stabilization of Soil Reinforced Stabilization of