Define [SOIL FORMATION] With Process & Factors Involved

Before discussing the Formation of Soil we know, Soil is Defined as an unconsolidated Material (Water present and soil are loose ) Composed of Solid Particle.  Produced By Disintegration of Rock.

The void space between Particle May Contains air, water, or both. also may contain Organic matter. The soil Particle  can be separate by Such Mechanical means as  Agitation (basically change water property)
soil formation
soil formation

The Soil Formation

the soil is formed by weathering of rock due to disintegration or decomposition. due to these action rock convert into small particles and soil formed. mainly Two Process of soil formation are responsible for Formation of soil

Physical Disintegration Formation Process

In this Process of Formation of soil basically, the Property of soil is the same as Parent rock ex- Gravel, Sand, etc. Below we read Soil formation Factors Definition

Temperature action - rocks contain a different type of material. and this material has different thermal expansion when the temperature changes some material expand and some not also when temp. drop some contraction happen in some material. these contraction and expansion are produced stress in rock and when this stress reaches limiting value rock divide in parts. these parts again convert into small parts by temp. action and at the end formation of soil occur.


Wedging action of ice - we know rock contains cracks and crack contain water. due to the variable region when temp. drop below freezing point water convert into ice and we know ice occupy large volume than water. Due to these phenomena, high pressure develop into rock and rock broken into pieces



Spreading of the root of plants - when a plant grows its roots also grow and sometimes go to the rock crack and produced high force into the rock. due to this rock broken into small pieces.

Abrasion - when the water and other natural element moves over rock this give friction effect in rock surface and these friction cases removal of the top layer of rock and so Formation of soil Occur.

Chemical Process of Disintegration Formation

As compared to the physical State of Formation of soil. in chemical decomposition original rock mineral is transformed into a new type of material which has different property then original rock. Clay is the example of soil which Comes from Chemical Process of soil formation


Hydration - in this case when water mix with rock minerals a new chemical compound comes. This Chemical reaction gives volume change effects in rock. and rock decomposed into small particles


Carbonation - when carbon dioxide present in atmospheric comes with water. its form carbonic acid. it's reaction with rock case decomposition of the rock.


Oxidation - oxidation is like rusting of steel. when oxygen ions combined with minerals in rock its produced reaction and the decomposition of the rock Done.


solution - when some rock minerals dissolved with water and its make a solution with water. its produced reaction and decomposition take place


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