Showing posts from January, 2020

How to Deal with People who stopping your Progress

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in your society you are surrounding by default people mean you dont chose them they and you come to that place by default, if you think they not good and not the people which you want, you need improvement if you improved your thinking your standard you automatically lift and gain a power which allows you to chose your surrounding people. because when you successful you can change the default to manually environment, but when you grow there is a chance that these people try to stop you by giving a advice which is destroyed your dream. so today is talk all about this.  Deal with People who stooping your Progress Always Remember these people not in your support when you are deciding or on the path. these never support you when you need support. When you work on your goal some people like you some dislike but it does not matter. only matter things is your thinking and whats your expectation. People who do not care you never waste your time to think about that. And when you get successful,

The Best 5 ways to concentrate on study continuously for long hours

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every time when you go to the study you facing a problem related to limit means after some study time you need some rest or you attention for the study is destroyed, its a common problem in the human beings, now question is ? how its problem eliminated, first of all, its not one day's process, you need to be consistent in process which I discuss below.     how to concentrate on study continuously for long hours   Brain Trains - First of all train your brain by giving an extra 10 min. every time when you lifting from your study bench try to compromise your brain just saying hey just keep calm its not right time of quiet study it's after 10 min,  and when 10 minutes go try to push for another 10 min, so after some days you realize your sitting capacity Is increase and your limit is gone.  Stop Laziness -  you should end the laziness of your Brain and Body. Never transfer today work to tomorrow, there is always one similarity in between Succesful and fail person which is dreams, b

How to increase memory power and concentration

A mind is like a machine if you maintain its property its capacity increase and if you dont care you definitely chance of losing its capacity, no matter you are a student or teacher, every point of view the brain power always give good result and respect in society. so today I talk about Some tips which help you to increase brain Power.  Increase memory power and concentration 1. Drink water - Drink water in the regular interval if you do any work, its help you to become calm and maintaining body hydration, every time when you study or doing other, make sure water bottle present at your desk. 2. Learn new Language or a new book - Other than your profession always read or learn a new language its increase your confidence and always help in increasing mind processing power. 3.Regular Exercise - Exercise is always beneficial to everyone, its fit and refreshes your body and increase brain power. 4. Diet and sleep - Proper sleep gives relax to your brain from outer things it makes you calm,

How To Increase Confidence which help you to Achieve Dream Goal

We need confidence to do any work, then only that work can be done well. But when we start working, we start feeling scared and we lack confidence in ourselves The reason is that we know what to do but we do not know how to do that work. Now some people will say that we should work fearless, only then will there be confidence in us, when it is completely false Because when we are confident we are fearless and not vice versa. That's why intelligent men always say confidence comes from how not what Its best example is driving a car, now let's say we don't know how to drive a car, And we try to drive a car fearlessness, So there is a lot of chance that you will be the victim of an accident. Whereas if you have understood the principle of the car well before how it runs, then you can keep your first try fantastic, If we talk about achieving your dream goal, we often see that we grab any job, then we realize that we wanted to do something and have been doing something else, Afte

Define [SOIL FORMATION] With Process & Factors Involved

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Before discussing the Formation of Soil we know, Soil is Defined as an unconsolidated Material (Water present and soil are loose ) Composed of Solid Particle.  Produced By Disintegration of Rock. The void space between Particle May Contains air, water, or both. also may contain Organic matter. The soil Particle  can be separate by Such Mechanical means as   Agitation (basically change water property) soil formation The Soil Formation the soil is formed by weathering of rock due to disintegration or decomposition. due to these action rock convert into small particles and soil formed. mainly Two Process of soil formation are responsible for Formation of soil Physical Disintegration Formation Process In this Process of Formation of soil basically, the Property of soil is the same as Parent rock ex- Gravel, Sand, etc. Below we read Soil formation Factors Definition Temperature action - rocks contain a different type of material. and this material has different thermal expansion when th

Capillary Potential and Capillary Siphoning in Dam Definition

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Before you learn Capillary Potential,  we highly recommended seeing lesson 1st and 2nd and 3rd for the better understanding Capillary Water Movement in Soil Shrinkage and Swelling of Soil Capillary Water in Soil Relation of Surface Tension and Capillary Action Work in Soil Water Capillary Potential - the tendency which the soil hold the capillary water is measured in term of the capillary potential. it defined as work done to take water from the mass of soil. dear friends, we know the Capillary force is negative so we can relate it with capillary potential and say its always negative and max value is zero. From the Capillary water tension we now when water content decreases the tension increase. from these we say when water content minimum the capillary potential is minimum. Capillary Siphoning Definition Capillary siphoning happen when the water flows upward due to capillary action. From this upward flow result, the capillary water flows over the core from the storage reservoir to the

How [Surface Tension] and [Capillary Action] Work in Water / Soil With relation

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Before starting lessons 3 of  Capillary Water Tension it's highly recommended to read lesson 1st and 2nd by click below link, it gives a good idea about the topic.  Capillary Water Movement in Soil Shrinkage and Swelling of Soil Capillary Water in Soil Relation of Surface Tension and Capillary Action Work in Soil Water Capillary Potential and Capillary Siphoning in Dam Capillary action due to Tension  Dear Friends, Basic Phenomena of the earth is When Pressure applied, in Direction of Gravity Force called positive pressure. Now understanding the term capillary water tension. the previous lesson, we see a Capillary tube in which water on the inside is hanging to Surface of the tube. Let's show a capillary tube Fig. The pressure of point a is atmospheric pressure because of a free surface. Now pressure (p) of top point T is (p = ρ g h) now because it acting upward its again the general earth law of pressure so it's written as p = -(ρ g h) So here we can say in Tube water is t

How [Capillary Action] Work in Water & Soil with Tube experiment

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Before starting the lesson we highly recommended to see the previous lesson no 1  on 👉 Capillary water and surface tension .  For a better understanding of Capillary rise in the soil, it's very important to first see the Capillary rise in small diameter tube which gives a high-level understanding of the topic. Capillary Rise in the tube. In fig show a capillary tube of small dia, in the tube water rise throw some height, Basically, water rise in small diameter tube because of adhesion and cohesion Adhesion- its Because of water stick to the solid wall of a tube Cohesion - It is an attraction of water molecules. If adhesion effect more than cohesion the water molecule push each other and liquid rise. in case of cohesion effect more than adhesion liquid fall, example- the case of mercury. Capillary rise action in soil the reason for the capillary rise in the soil is an air-water interface. As soon soil submerging to water the air-water interface destroyed and at the end when soil

What is [Shrinkage] and [Swelling]

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Shrinkage Term shrinkage and swelling are basically for the clay soil. in the previous lesson of capillary water, we introduced a word capillary tension, you relate this tension to shrinkage for better understanding. the main reason for shrinkage is this tension. see the diagram of the shrinkage process. let see the fig (a) in which soil mass saturated to full level a-a, due to capillary water or any other reason, assumed temperature increase and some water evaporation take place, due to this evaporation water go to (b-b) due to this little, small amount of tension come in soil particle, because we already discuss in capillary water tension, water stick to the surface of the soil particle, when water level reduced tension produced in water. or obviously compression on the soli particle, basically, water compresses the soil particle due to tension produced in it. try to visualize for clean understanding. if further water evaporates the more compression of soil particle come. which give

What is [Tensiometer], Suction Plate, [Centrifugal] method of Soil Suction

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Before starting soil suction test lets know what is soil suction, we also highly recommended to see the previous lesson of capillary water for better understanding, let's start Soil Suction - in soil suction, word suction means stretching something. and we know due to capillary water, soil comes in tension. And pressure due to capillary water rise is negative. also, it reduced to below atmospheric pressure, now from the previous statement we can say the soil is in a state of reduced pressure is known as soil suction. Soil Suction Test - for measurement of soil suction amount, soil suction test is conducting, in this article we defined varies type of test. which used under different condition. let's start Suction Plate Method -  this soil suction test, A extra attachment of vacuum pump is provided (see fig) as compared to the previous method. soil sample which suction is tested is placed over the porous plate. below porous plate water is filled. so soil starts suction of water b

[Bulk Density] and [Porosity] Relation

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Relationship between bulk density and porosity last time we discuss three-phase diagram of volumetric relation (void ratio, porosity, etc), now there are many interrelations between them which is really important in whole soil engineering, today we see relationship Between Bulk density,  porosity, and Degree of saturation. Which is one of them, To star We draw a three-phase diagram in term of Porosity this diagram satisfied void ratio and porosity relation. Finding the density in the form of specific gravity. firstly find the degree of saturation in the form of porosity next time when we put Sn in place of nw it gives the shape to our equation.  finally, we find the density of solid in the form of specific gravity  Finally, the last step is just taking common value ρw outside of the equation and we get  ρ = [G(1-n) + sn] ρw this is the  relationship  of  Bulk density, porosity, and Degree of saturation,  The all above Process also called three-phase diagram in term of Porosity . Also,

Define [Particle Size Distribution] With the Help of Curve

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Particle size distribution Particle size distribution is Representation of sieving result, it helps to easy understanding the various particle size minority and the majority. For proper Understanding of particle size distribution, it is important to visualize the sieving process,  Now we know, When the Sieving is done, Different type of particles settled in their respective sieve according to their size, After that Computation of percentage finer is done, Which help to find Percentage Finer (N),  this Percentage Finer give the exact Percentage of material Retains according to sieve type, again we can say, Particle size distribution is Representation of these result, it helps to easy understanding the various particle size minority and the majority. Because the course grain soil property depends on particle size, particle size distribution is very useful for coarse-grained soil. for better of particle size distribution it is important to discuss Percentage finer (N) Percentage finer (N)

[Sieve Analysis] / [Sieving Process] with Defination

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What is Sieving Sieving is Process of Separation of soil, on the bases of particle size. Its come under the Mechanical analysis which is index property of coarse grain soil.  The process is done manually or by machine, we suggest see Table below for better understanding the term sieving. Soil property Process of sieving From the above chart, we know sieving is done for Coarse-grained soil. in the process, the soil is sieved throw set of sieved, stacked one over the other, from top to bottom in decreasing size. the Receiver at the bottom knows pan, which is without opening. sieve generally made of spun brass and phosphor bronze. The sieving process for coarse-grained soil further divide into = Dry and wet sieving Before discussing dry or wet term firstly let's check sieve type = Gravel Fraction and sand Fraction Sieve analysis sieve analysis is the process in which different size sieve is placed on each other So that we can divide the various particles of that Soil according to its

Relationship Between [Void Ratio], Specific Gravity / [Degree of Saturation]

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In three phase diagrame, we see volumetric relations and volume mass relation, further, thair is Relationship between void ratio specific gravity and degree of saturation.which important in solving the numerical problem and for a better understanding of the chapter.  Fig Show a three phase diagram, the left side of which shows Volume and right side show mass respectively for air-water solid. We know Density ρ = mass / Volume  also this can be written as  mass = Density x Volume from above we say the mass of water = Density of water x Volume of water = ρw x Vw Now Mass of solid = density of solid x Volume of Solid , But We don't know the density of solid but we know Specific Gravity (G) = Density of solid ρs / Density of Water ρw , from this we can say Density of solid is ρs = G x ρw Put these density value in Mass formula M= ρv our diagram now look like this (second three phase diagram) Also, we know water content = Degree of saturation S = volume of water Vw  / volume of voids

[SOIL PERMEABILITY] Definition / Test to Find Permeability

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we discuss whereas types of water in soil on lesson capillary water , one of them is free water ( the water which flows from one point to other by the influence of gravity ). this free water gives permeability to the soil. we also know soil mass contain pores or holes. if these porous are interconnected its called interstices, free water flow throw it from one place to other places on soil mass.  Permeability of soil  From the above discussion, we can say the property of soil which permits flow of water on it Called permeability. However the velocity of water or say permeability may depend upon how much width of these interstices, for example, coarse grain soil give high permeability effect as compare to fine grain soil, because the particle gap is large in case of coarse grain as compared to fine grain. generally, all type of soil is permeable, if the soil is a very low permeability its called impervious soil. permeability is very important engineering property. it helps in design f

[SOIL STABILIZATION] Definition | Types

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When soil Available at a construction site is not Suitable For our construction Due is its low-level Property, then its required to improved engineering property (like Permeability, Shear strength ) and make our soil ready for construction, all these processes of improving soil is called Soil stabilization. the stabilization of any soil includes the term compaction, drainage, and Preconsolidation mean these cover in the stabilization process. With the help of the soil stabilization process, we quickly make good workability condition on any type of soil. specially trafficable area and in case of emergency military movement. Method of Soil Stabilization There are lots of soil stabilization technique used in modern days which are following Soil stabilization with cement Mechanical Stabilization of Soil Bituminous  Stabilization Soil stabilization using lime Chemical Stabilization of Soil Fabric and Geotextile Stabilization of Soil Thermal Stabilization of Soil Reinforced Stabilization of

How [Capillary Action of Water] Movement Work in Soil

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Capillary Water When You Talking About Important Topic in Soil mechanics and Also in other Engineering Subject Capillary Water Surface tension is one of the most important Topic. This is lesson 1 in which we talk about only  Capillary water basic and surface tension. So the Question 1  is What is Capillary Water? Before Discussing Capillary water it Very important to see this Graph of the type of soil water. Free Water In soil -  these water flows from one point to other were different of total head Present. mainly reason of this is due to an influence of the gravity. Now we know the particular space in soil is very low so this water is a laminar Flow type. ( maybe non-laminar in Case of coarse soil) Free Water Give the Permeability Effect in soil Held Water-  it does not move under the influence of the gravity, basically held water is retained in the Pores of the soil. Structure Water   - This water is Part of the crystal structure of the mineral of the soil. it chemically combined

Relationship Between Void Ratio and Porosity

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the porosity and void ratio both indicates the void hole in a soil mass but it a different as we discuss in three phase diagram 👈 of volumetric relation . the voids ratio define how much voids present as compared to total solids in soil mass, where porosity say how much voids as compared to total volume of soil mass, in void ratio if the void increase in soil mass only top value change. but in porosity both top and bottom value change . 👈 there is a relation between void ratio and porosity which very important in soil problem discuss below.  The relation between porosity and void ratio we know formula of void ratio (e) = Vv / Vs in which Vv = Volume of Voids and Vs = Volume of Solids Porosity formula (n) = Vv / V  Vv = Volume of Voids and V= Total Volume of soil mass. first letter V represent volume and second letter a= air, W= water S= solid also the volume of voids = Vw + Va Now finding the relation between (e) a

What is [FROST HEAVE] | Frost Boil Definition, Prevention and Solutions

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In the previous lesson we study about the capillary water rise in the soil , you can relate Frost heave to capillary water for better understanding. we know due to capillary action, water rise in the soil above the water table. and if the atmospheric temperature is below freezing point this water has a chance to convert into ice, now action begins. there is a fact between water and ice - when water change to ice its volume increase. this fact responsible for the heave. Frost Heave when water freeze in soil its volume increase and try to expand the soil which gives an undulation heave to the ground surface this phenomenon called frost heave. heave has also the power to lift the small structure. which not good for any structure safety. Now we know fine grain soil has high capillary rise as compared to coarse grain soil it does not mean every fine grain soil give frost heave. another factor called permeability is responsible for the frost heave action. some fine grain soil like Silt, fine

What is [BULKING OF SAND] | How its Different than Slaking of Clay

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Bulking of sand is the phenomenon in which the volume of sand increases, mainly due to capillary action or adding some specific value of water content (ex- 4-5%) to dry sand. we know sand is not plastic in nature, assuming dry sand placed on the ground where the capillary action occurred. Due to this action water start uplift throw sand particle. and the sand becomes damp. in this damp sand, cohesion(attraction of water molecule) develop throwout capillary rice. this attraction prevents sand particle to taking a stable position. because in the previous lesson we know capillary water produced upward pressure. from the all above definition we say the volume of the sand increase due to damping, this increased volume is called bulking of sand. also, note that if you increase more water than a reasonable amount, capillary action destroyed and volume decrease. you can check bulking of sand at home by adding some water to sand, bulking is maximum at water content around 4-5% Slaking of clay 

What is degree of Saturation definition, Formula | Equation

For Proper Understanding Of terms, we Highly recomend to see these Past Before any Reading Three Phase Diagram of Soil Void Ratio of soil Porosity of Soil Degree of saturation - Its Defined  how Much water  present in the pores of soil as compared to total voids volume in the soil mass. Denoted by (S) and the formula is  S = Vw / Vv The value of s is written in percentage, when a soil mass is fully saturated S = 100% if a soil mass completely dry its value is 0.

What is Porosity of soil definition, Formula & Equation

For Proper Understanding Of terms, we Highly recommend to see these Topics Before any Reading Three Phase Diagram Void Ratio of soil Degree of Saturation Porosity of soil - Porosity refers to little hole or pores in the soil mass. these hole filled by water and air. porosity look same as void ratio by definition but the difference between these are porosity defines how much is total holes as compared to total volume. But voids ration define total hole as compare to solids. if you visualize then see porosity not go above 1 as compare to voids ratio. because voids volume never increases above total volume. Porosity is Denoted by (n) and is formula is e = Vv/V there is a one most important 👉 relation between void ratio and porosity 👈 . which used in many soil mechanics problem. its recommended  to see that relation the denseness of soil measure from porosity and also from void ratio because as porous in soil decrease the denseness of soil increase. if pore value is more then soil bec

What is Air content, Air voids Definition, Formula / Equation

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For Proper Understanding Of terms, we Highly recommend to see these Past Topics Before any Reading Three Phase Diagram Void Ratio of soil Porosity of Soil Degree of Saturation Air Content - Defined how Much volume of air present in the pores of soil as compared to total voids volume in the soil mass. the value of air content is zero when the soil is fully saturated because of no air present in the fully saturated soil. Air content (ac) = Va / Vv Percentage air voids - its defined how much percentage of air is present as compare to total volume in a soil mass. denoted by (na) = Va / V The relation between air content and percentage Air Voids. from above relation, we can say percentage air voids is equal to porosity multiply air content.

Three Phase Diagram of Soil EXPLANATION

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Soil Mass is the complex mixture of mainly three Particle called Water, Air, Solid. the first two particles generally fill in a porous structure. Which is formed due to space creation between solid particle. For a better understanding of particle arrangement, we see each particle separately in form of Diagram. this separation of solid, air, water called three phase diagram system of soil . now Question is What its use in soil . and the answer, it helps to find one of the most important Relations in soil engineering. so today we talk about volumetric type relation ( Void ratio , porosity of soil , degree of saturation, percentage air voids, air content). with three phase diagram of soil fig show actual soil mass and soil in form of a three phase diagram For easy understanding, we write volume part on left and mass part on the right of the diagram. When weight considers instant of mass, its written on the right side. Vv = volume of voids Va= volume of air Vw= volume of water Vs= volume